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Full text of "Indians at Work"

D STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR * OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS "WASHINGTON, D.C. 



Coi/ection of Native North American Indian Books,- 
Historical Books Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

tari Ford McNaughton - 



COVER PHOTOGRAPH 

Charlie Saluskin, who came to Washington with oth- 
er members of the delegation from Yakima Agency in Wa- 
shington. ( See page six. ) 



INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF JULY 1939 

Volume VI Number 11 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Rosebud Sioux Of South Dakota Adopt 

British King and Queen 7 

Dr. W. Carson Ryan Finds Indians Stimu- 
lated To Control Own Destinies 8 

No Longer Vanishing American - The Red 

Indian Rises Again Floyd W. La Rouche . 9 

Senior Class At Carson Agency Visits 

San Francisco Fair 15 

Five Awards In Competitive Exhibition 

Won By Indian Construction Unit 16 

Cattle Raising On The San Carlos Reser- 
vation In Arizona Harry Stevens 18 

Unusual Indian Murals Completed By 

Maynard Dixon 22 

Herman W. Johannes Resigns As Manager 

Of Menominee Indian Mills 23 

Indians And Indian Matters As Glimpsed 

In The Daily Press Doris C. Brodt 25 

A Kickapoo War Veteran Tells His Story ... Richard Simon 29 

Indians At Red Lake, Minnesota, Meet 

Problems Of A Changing World Mary M. Kirkland and 

Clarence W. Ringey , 31 

The Right Reverend Monsignor William 

Hughes Dies , Rev. J. B. Tennelly. 35 

Old Days And Traditions Lived Again By 

Western Shoshone Indians 36 

Almost One Hundred Indian Groups Have 

Adopted New Constitutions 37 

Telephone Poles For CCC-ID Patrick Gray 39 

Wide Variety Of Recent Publications Re- 
veal Deep Interest In Indian Subjects . Elizabeth Morison .. Ifi 

CCC-ID Reports 46 




AT WORK 

A News Sheet for INDIANS and the INDIAN SERVICE 



VOLUME VI • - JULY 1939 - - MUMDER 11 



A very recent shift of policy toward Indian native cultures 
by the Indian administration of the Republic of Mexico holds immense 
significance for all of Pan-America. The change has been reported at 
Washington in recent days by Dr. Daniel F. Rubin de la Borbolla. Dr. 
Borbolla heads the Department of Anthropology of the National School 
of Biological Sciences of the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico 
City. 

To realize fully the meaning of the shift of policy, one 
needs to go back hundreds of years, to the great Indian reforms of 
Philip the Second. Philip the Second promulgated the Laws of the 
Indies, and contained within those laws was the promise of a good 
future for the Indians through the whole vast domain of Spain. The 
laws were not merely idealistic. Philip the Second investigated In- 
dian problems with such pertinacity that he made himself the best 
informed man in the world upon the subject. He used methods quite 
modern, and the reports which he drew in from hundreds of areas fur- 
nish the best data existing as to the populations, the geographical 
situation, the economic status and the community needs of the Indians 
of three hundred years ago. 

The Laws of the Indies were promulgated in Spanish and were 
distributed throughout the Spanish dominion. 

But the Indians did not read Spanish, and hardly any of 
them could speak more than a few words of it. They never became ef- 
fectually possessed of the Laws of the Indies; hence they could not 
invoke the Spanish sovereignty in any practical manner. Their num- 

1 



1 



2 



berless petitions went wide of the mark because they were blankly un- 
informed upon that system of laws and procedures needed to implement 
their strivings. 

The years and centuries went on, and still the Indian 
masses neither could read nor write nor understand Spanish. 

Then there was launched the government's effort at school- 
ing the Indians. Within the last twenty-five years, schools have been 
planted everywhere in Mexico. These schools in marty instances have 
been models of practical endeavor. They have been, within the limits 
of an exclusive utilization of Spanish as their medium, economic, 
cultural and clinical centers of the Indian communities. But this 
limitation, of the utilization of Spanish and nothing but Spanish, 
was found to bind the schools in to a too narrow usefulness, spirit- 
ual and practical. 

How has come the re -examination of theory and of practice. 
Three million Mexican Indians are devoid of any knowledge of Spanish. 
Another two million, classed in the census as literate, have no more 
than a slight trading knowledge of words and phrases. They do not 
really communicate in Spanish, nor can they be reached through Soan- 
ish. A minimum of five million Indians in Mexico are. practically 
mono-lingual in the Indian language. These languages number fifty- 
two, but for practical purposes, to reach the great mass of the In- 
dians, thirty-nine is the minimum number. 

The new policy in Mexico is to shift the school work with 
Indians onto the native language basis. This requires the establish- 
ment of alphabets and the rendering of the native languages into 
phonetic or conventional transcription. The work has been started 
in a demonstration area. The policy is definite for the whole In- 
dian population. 

It is intended not merely to shift the communication and 
teaching into the native languages, but to compile, interpret and 
publish in the native languages the facts that are essential to each 
Indian group where it is. Thus there is being inaugurated, on paral- 
lel lines, a vast linquistic project, a sociological and economic 
project, and a project of re-stating the general and universal prob- 
lems and aims of government into the aboriginal languages. 

Dr. Borbolla, who told at length what is most roughly sum- 
marized here, is not a romantic. He anticipates the entry of all 
the Indians into European culture, not in spite of the new policy, 
but by means of it. Because of the barrier against communication, 
after hundreds of years they have not entered into European culture. 
Dr. Borbolla and his co-workers are satisfied that the new policy 
and method, if it can be pressed for a sufficient length of time, 



3 



will bridge the chasm, will bring the Indians into the Spanish lan- 
guage and into world culture and at the same time will conserve an 
all but incalculable heritage of ancient folk values for the use of 
the Mexico of tomorrow. 

Dr. Borbolla realizes, too, the huge difficulties on the 
way. He is seeking various kinds of technical help from the learned 
societies in this country. 

On May 25, 1939, died Mrs. Stella M. Atwood, at Riverside, 
California, and on May 28, died James A. Frear, at Washington. In- 
dian history, since 1920, would have been different, and less happy, 
but for the work of each of these. 

Mrs. Atwood died in her 74-th year, and Mr. Frear in his 
79th year. Mr. Frear 's interest first was kindled by Mrs. Atwood, 
far back in 1925. Mrs. Atwood had "awakened the nation" on Indian 
issues in 1922. Thus, both of these friends of the Indian gave their 
militant and toilsome service when past middle life. 

It was in 1920 that Mrs. Atwood brought into existence the 
Indian Welfare Division of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. 
She acted as its chairman. There was an atmosphere of peril and 
crisis in many parts of the Indian country, in the years 1921 and 
1922. Albert B. Fall had become Secretary of the Interior. 

In the spring of 1922 I first encountered Mrs. Atwood. 
She was reading omnivorously in the Indian Commissioners' reports, 
Federal Statutes, and particularly the Appropriation Hearings of the 
House Committee. Each of us, at that date in 1922, was prepared to 
give two years (and, we naively hoped, no more) to an effort to 
change the system of Indian management. We stumbled right away into 
the Bursum Bill, passed by the Senate and pending in the House, of 
which the Indians themselves knew nothing. This bill sought to ex- 
propriate the land-holdings of the Pueblo Tribes. Other bills and 
administrative undertakings of shattering character were quickly 
discovered. One of them would have taken from the Mescalero Apache 
Tribe most of its lands. Another would have denied the ownership 
by the Navajo Tribe of all its Executive Order reservations, through 
a departmental ruling which collaterally would have denied the In- 
dian ownership of Executive order reservations everywhere. Another, 
most picturesque of all the terrors, was known as the Indian Omnibus 
Bill. This is not the place to describe that bill. 

The public's lack of information and consequent indiffer- 
ence was all but absolute; the Indians were hardly better informed; 
and these menacing bills and policies were being promoted by the In- 
terior Department itself. 



The Pueblo Tribes first marched. And in company with sev- 
enteen of their governors, priests, and other elder statesmen, Mrs. 
Atwood came to Washington. Then commenced an exceedingly bitter and 
dramatic struggle. Before it was finished, the Albert B. Fall attack 
against Indian rights had been destroyed in its entirety. Mrs. At- 
wood 's health had temporarily been shattered. The victory seemed at 
the moment tremendous, until Mrs. Atwood, along with the groups she 
had taken leadership in awakening, realized that the fundamental 
system of Indian Affairs had not been changed at all. That system, 
the product of two generations of administrative and statutory accum- 
ulation, sought the destruction of the tribes as living, functioning 
entities, denied constitutional rights to Indians, pulverized land- 
holdings through the allotment system which threw into white owner- 
ship two million acres of Indian land each year, and generally was 
the system of "liquidating" the Indian through the technics of a 
dogmatically benevolent absolutism. 

The American Indian Defense Association, Inc., carried 
forward the effort; Mrs. Atwood was a founder and director. 

At this point entered James A. Frear, then a member of 
Congress from Wisconsin. Mr. Frear had just at that time been placed 
on the Indian Committee of the House, having been expelled from all 
other committees because he was a politically Progressive. Conver- 
sations initiated by Mrs. Atwood resulted in profound and fixed pur- 
pose in the mind of James A. Frear - the purpose not of curing symp- 
tomatic woes of the Indians, but of reconstructing, in principle and 
in form, the system of Indian management. Mr. Frear waged his cam- 
paign in committee and on the floor of Congress, and at his own ex- 
pense made journeys to Indian country North, South, East and West. 
During the longest of these journeys, Mr. Frear, at Salt Lake City, 
brought to a focus the interest of Senator King of Utah, whence 
arose, after nearly two years, the Senate's activity of investigat- 
ing Indian matters, under a resolution promoted by Senator King." 
(1928) Mr. Frear kept up his work until so far as his own powers 
could extend, it was accomplished. The Indian Reorganization Act of 
June 18, 193A-, was the culmination of that which Mrs. Atwood, Repre- 
sentative Frear, Senator Kins* and many others had struggled for. 

Mrs. Atwood never ceased her Indian activity. She con- 
tinued it virtually until the last day of her life. Mr. Frear re- 
tired from Congress voluntarily, but his personal interest was con- 
tinuing. Many other efforts and other lives were interwoven with 
the efforts and lives of these two, whose names surely will have a 
permanent place in the history of Indians and of government. 

Mrs. Atwood carried for very many years a burden of ill 
health. But her life was a happy one. Interests ever-youthful and 



5 



various, a sense of humor rarely failing, a perfect comradeship with 
Dr. Atwood, her husband. Last year, with Dr. Atwood, Mrs. Atwood 
visited England, and at Avon, in the Lake country, along the Thames, 
her spirit seemed to have found its native home. That old - thous- 
and-year-old - pursuit of liberty and of justice through pragmatic 
achievement, hoping not too much and fainting never, which is one of 
England's gifts to universal man, had entered her own life when she 
was young. Going back to these sources was a crowning happiness in 
a good life, and it was not going away from Indians. 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



******* 



WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS 



The following superintendents have recently visited the 
Washington Office: Sophie D. Aberle, Superintendent, United Pueb- 
los Agency (New Mexico); Louis C. Balsam, Field Representative in 
Charge, Colville Agency (Washington); Ralph Fredenberg, Superinten- 
dent, Keshena Agency (Wisconsin); Guy Hobgood, Superintendent, 
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency (Oklahoma); Walter B. McCown, Superin- 
tendent, Kiowa Agency (Oklahoma); William C. Smith, Superintendent, 
Sisseton Agency (South Dakota); Claude R. Whitlock, Superintendent, 
Rosebud Agency (South Dakota); Seth Wilson, Superintendent, Hopi 
Agency (Arizona); and Robert Yellowtail, Superintendent, Crow Agen- 
cy (Montana). 

Other recent visitors have included: A. C. Monahan, Re- 
gional Coordinator, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Louis 0. Mueller, 
Chief Special Officer, Denver, Colorado. Cheyenne and Arapaho (Ok- 
lahoma): Ed Burns, Theodore Hawrey, John Otterby, and Jesse Row- 
ledge. Hopi (Arizona): Bryan P. Adams, Fred Lomayesva, Ernest 
Naquayouma, Peter Nuvamsa, and Sam Shingoitwa. Rosebud (South Da- 
kota) : Stephen Brave Heart, Carlos Gallineaux, Henry Stranger Horse, 
Joe Thin Elk. George Whirlwind Soldier, and Thomas Whiting. S eminole 
(Florida): Lincoln Burden and Charles E. Grounds. Sis seton (South 
Dakota): Isaac Greyearth, Albert Heminger, and James Renville. 




7 



ROSEBUD SIOUX OF SOUTH DAKOTA ADOPT BRITISH KING AND QUEEN 



Resolution From Tribe Sent By Secretary Ickes To 
State Department For Transmission To Their Majesties 



Although disappointed that the itinerary of King George VI 
and Queen Elizabeth did not lead them to the Sioux country, the Rose- 
bud Sioux Indians of South Dakota assembled in council meeting and 
extended to their Majesties an honorary membership in their tribe. 

Henceforth, the King will be known to these Indians as 
Wicota Nawicakicijin, or "Defender of Many People", and the Queen 
will be known by the name of Wicota Wastekilapi, or "Loved by Many 
People." 

A dignified document, adorned by an Indian head, hand- 
painted in watercolor, was sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
for presentation to their Majesties on their visit to the nation's 
capital. It contains the sentiments of the tribe, as drawn up in a 
council meeting, held June 3> expressing their sincerest wishes for 
the personal welfare of the royal couple and for the prosperity of 
the British Empire. 

"It is remembered," the preamble states, "it was from the 
English people the first civilizing influence upon our race was felt 
and by that token a warm feeling of kinship exists." 

The resolution is signed by Thomas F. Whiting, President, 
and Lester Edwards, Secretary of the Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council. 
A roster of the meeting, attended by 4.8 members of the tribe, is 
attached. The list includes such names as Chris Colombo, Levi Elk 
Looks Back, George Whirlwind Soldier, Mike One Star, James Running 
Horse, James Two Charge, and Jesse Brave Hawk. The following is a 
copy of the resolution: 

Resolution 

BE IT RESOLVED, whereas it is noted in newspaper 
reports that certain tribes of Indians are to honor the 
King and Queen of England by conferring upon them member- 
ship to their tribe by adoption and, 

Whereas, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe of Indians join 
with other citizens of the United States in extending to 
their Majesties a welcome to our nation and, 



8 



Whereas, since the itinerary of the King and 
Queen does not lead them to the Sioux country where these 
sentiments of friendship could be personally expressed; 

Therefore, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in council as- 
sembled the third day of June 1939, take this opportunity 
of extending to the King and Queen our sincerest wishes for 
their personal welfare and for prosperity of the peoples of 
the British Empire, and as a token of our sentiments extend 
to them an honorary membership into the Rosebud Sioux Tribe 
and give to them tribal names: to wit - the King shall be 
known to us as "Defender of Many People" - Wicota Nawicaki- 
cijin; and the Queen shall be known to us as "Loved by Many 
People" - Wicota Wastekilapi. 

This Resolution to be extended through the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs at the time of the visit of 
their Majesties to our Capital. 

Submitted by Resolution Committee. 



Carlos Gallineaux 
Levi Elk Looks Back 



Thomas F. Whiting, President 
Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council. 

Lester Edwards, Secretary. 



DR. W. CARSON RYAN FINDS INDIANS STIMULATED TO CONTROL OWN DESTINIES 



n ... What gives the present national program for the American Indian 
a hope and vitality such programs have never had before is that those 
in charge of it are resolutely determined to encourage Indian people, 
as human beings, to live their own lives, to capitalize on their own 
assets, to control their own destinies (within the total framework of 
the American scene, to be sure), to make their own unique contribu- 
tion to Western civilization. The present effort would not have been 
possible were it not for the fact that there are now hundreds of re- 
sponsible persons who have learned to value Indians as people, who 
know their capacities, who appreciate individuals among them as per- 
sonalities. ..." 

# The above excerpt appeared in an article "Democracy At Work In The 
Community", by Dr. W. Carson Ryan, in the May 6, 1939 issue of SCHOOL 
AND SOCIETY. Dr. Ryan was formerly Director of Education in the In- 
dian Service. 



9 



NO LONGER THE VANISHING AMERICAN - THE RED INDIAN RISES AGAIN 

By Floyd W. La Rouche 

(Editor's Note: Presented below is a condensed version of 
a 3,000-word article prepared on request of the London Times and 
printed with copious illustrations in its special United States num- 
ber, published on the occasion of the visit of the British King and 
Queen to this country. By publishing this article throughout the 
United Kingdom and elsewhere, the editors of the Times typify an 
almost world-wide interest in the problems and the progress of the 
American Indian. ) 

The Red Indian of the United States, pictured at home as 
a member of a dying race and portrayed in many countries of Europe 
as a militant savage arrayed in feathered headdress and waving a 
tomahawk, is in actual fact, in the year 1939, as completely differ- 
ent from one misconception as from the other. 

The Indian of the United States is not "vanishing" and he 
is not and has never been as wild as he was painted. 

It is true that the Indian population diminished steadily 
after the establishment of white colonies, with full-blood Indians 
becoming less numerous as the assimilative processes went forward. 
But in recent years these things have changed. The curve of Indian 
population has taken a sudden upward swing and the drift toward as- 
similation has apparently slowed down. And with these changes in 
the current of native existence, there has come a resurgence of In- 
dian culture, Indian economy and Indian spirit. 

The best available statistics indicate that at the time 
Columbus landed there were living in what is now the United States, 
approximately 84-6,000 Indians. By 1900 the population was reported 
as 270,000, and apparently had dropped at one time even below this 
point. 

The chief causes of Indian decimation, as classified by 
one authority, were smallpox and epidemics; tuberculosis; sexual 
diseases; whiskey and attendant dissipation; removals, starvation 
and subjection to unaccustomed conditions; low vitality due to men- 
tal depression under misfortune; wars. War is considered the least 
important cause, as the tribes were in chronic warfare among them- 
selves before the white man came. 

The Indian population continued to decline until the lat- 
ter part of the last century when it started slowly upward. Within 
the last decade the increase has been unmistakably rapid. There are 



10 



now 342,000 Indians in the United States, plus 30,000 Indians and 
Eskimos living in Alaska. Of the 3^2,000, approximately half are 
full-blooded Indians and the remainder are mixed with whites in vary- 
ing degrees, and in the case of a few tribes, with Negroes. There 
are more than 200 distinct tribes living in 27 different states. 



From NEWSWEEK Magazine, June 19, 1939. Unprec- 
edented as was the visit of the British King and Queen to 
the United States last week, it was no more unusual than 
the arrival of The London Times on American newsstands the 
same day. 

Printed in London and brought over on the Aqui- 
tania, the 13,000 copies of The Times 1 United States Number 
consigned to the American News Company sold out at 5 cents 
each in three hours, and speculators got as high as $1 per 
copy. Meanwhile, the New York office of The Times cabled 
frantically for more. The reply: 10,700 more copies will 
be on sale in New York June 21. 

Behind a full-page cover photomontage of London 
and New York (sponsored by RCA and Cable & Wireless Ltd.}, 
with "God-speed and all success to Their Majesties", the 
32 pages that caused all the furor contain articles on the 
World's Fairs, education, travel, business, racial prob- 
lems, art, and countless other subjects. 



The increases in Indian population have not been accom- 
panied by corresponding increases in land and other productive as- 
sets. From 1887, when the General Allotment Act was passed, until 
1933, Indians were consistently despoiled of their lands. Communal 
land tenure was broken up. Indian resources were being rapidly dis- 
sipated. 

Under the sway of a policy to "Americanize" the Indian, 
the Indians as a race were on the road to extinction. Indian life 
was becoming tangled in a mesh of democracy. Under the weight of 
a benevolent Federal "guardianship", Indian initiative and resource- 
fulness were being crushed. Tribal government was ignored or under- 
mined. Ancient ceremonies and religions were suppressed. Native 
arts and pottery were discouraged. Indian family life was nearly 
destroyed in the institution of the government boarding school. 

In 1862 Secretary Stanton described the administration of 
Indian affairs as a "sink of iniquity" and President Lincoln de- 



11 



clared: "If we get through this war, and I live, this Indian system 
shall be reformed." 

For years the friends of the Indian and Indian leaders 
themselves agitated for reform. In the late 1920* s a thorough fac- 
tual study of the whole system was made by a committee under the In- 
stitute of Government Research, headed by Dr. Lewis Meriam. Publica- 
tion of the Meriam Report in 1928 was followed by a lengthy investi- 
gation by a committee of the United States Senate whose voluminous 
hearings and exposures heralded the reforms to come. In 1929 there 
were appointed Indian commissioners of a wholly new type, pledged to 
a reform program - Messrs. Charles J. Rhoads and J. Henry Scatter- 
good. Under their administration the ground work was laid for a new 
policy. 

In 1933 three vigorous critics of governmental Indian pol- 
icies were appointed to important posts - Harold L. Ickes, as Secre- 
tary of the Interior, Nathan R. Margold as Solicitor of the Interior 
Department and John Collier as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

The new Indian Commissioner defined his objectives thus: 

To move the Indian toward economic self-support, which in- 
cludes furnishing land for subsistence to landless groups. Furnish- 
ing agricultural credit and opportunities for technological training 
to Indians and assisting the development of the cooperative movement 
among Indians. 

To speed up the final settlement of Indian tribal claims 
against the government. 

To establish civil liberty, including group and cultural 
liberty, within a framework of continuing Federal protection and as- 
sistance. 

To establish conservation, through intelligent use by the 
Indians themselves, with government aid, of all Indian-owned land 
resources. Indian land resources have dangerously deteriorated 
through misuse. Half the solid value of Indian range lands has been 
lost. 

Affirmatively to seek the conservation of the Indian social 
heritage ("culture") through finding ways to help it interact with 
the general life, in matters, economic, political and esthetic. This 
includes as one element the protection of Indian ceremonial life; as 
another, the protection and re -invigo ration of Indian arts and 
crafts; as another, the discovery and utilization, in a process of 
"indirect administration" of viable elements in the material, politi- 
cal and social culture of Indians. 



12 



So, to decentralize Indian administration that programs and 
their fullf ilment will be the responsibility of the local service 
personnel in continuous interaction with the organized tribes. 

To recruit talent more practical and more creative for In- 
dian service, and supply in-service training to Indian and white em- 
ployees alike. 

To abandon the tradition of Indian Office monopoly over 
the Indian Service, by drawing all available Federal and state a- 
gencies into Indian Service. In important areas the Indian Service 
job is now a merger of the Departments of Agriculture and the In- 
terior (Navajo, Pueblo, Wyoming, Shoshone); in others it is a merger 
of the Interior Department with state departments of education, 
health, welfare, etc., (California, Minnesota, Wisconsin). 

******* 

The Indian Reorganization Act is the basic foundation for 
the new era. Much of it is not new, having been suggested and even 
strongly urged over a period of many years by enlightened men and 
women both inside and outside the Government. But not until 1934 
were these things incorporated into Federal law. 

The old policies of Indian administration, when compared 
to the new ones as embodied chiefly in the Act of 1934, present some 
startling and significant contrasts. Here, in brief, is a compari- 
son of some of the essential points: 

LAND - The Old ; Traditional policy worked toward the break up 
of Indian lands by individual property ownership. Indian tribal 
enterprises became dormant because of lack of tools and credit. In- 
dian soil resources, range and timber lands, were used and exploited 
without plan. 

The New ; Land losses stopped and holdings increased 
from 50,000 acres in 1933 to 52,650 acres in 1937. Group organiza- 
tion was encouraged and credit supplied for cooperative enterprises. 
Acreage leased to whites declined. Far-reaching plans for land, 
range, timber and soil are being carried out in cooperation with the 
Soil Conservation Service. 

RIGHTS - The Old: The rights of Indians were almost solely de- 
pendent on the Indian Bureau, which maintained itself as a monopoly 
in Indian administration, to the detriment of tribal self-government. 
The historic policy was to break up Indian cultural, social and eco- 
nomic life, in favor of absorption by the dominant white population. 
There was no legal assurance of civil liberties for Indians, because 
offenders were subject to arrest, trial and imprisonment by Indian 
Service officials and by judges controlled by reservation superinten- 



13 



dents. The Indian Bureau dealt with Indians individually, on a pa- 
ternalistic basis. 

The New; The Indians have been granted the fundamental 
rights enjoyed by white citizens. The power of the Indian Bureau 
over the Indians has been curbed, and Federal and State agencies are 
cooperating in administrative responsibilities. The Bureau fosters 
democratic principles and the right to negotiate through representa- 
tives of the Indians' own choosing. Religious and cultural liberty 
are affirmed. The right of Indians to their own languages, cere- 
monies, arts and traditions is respected and encouraged.. Gag and se- 
dition laws have been repealed. The system of justice for Indians 
has been reorganized and safeguarded from official control of Indian 
courts, whose jurisdiction Is carefully defined. 

SOCIAL SERVICE - The Old: The Indian death rate was double that 
of the general population in the 1920' s. Health services were inade- 
quate. Indian education was dominated by boarding schools, for the 
most part poor imitations of semi -military white industrial schools, 
tending deliberately toward the break-up of Indian family life. In- 
dian arts and crafts were discouraged. 

The New : The Indian death rate decreased to 13.7 per 
thousand in 1936 (average U. S. rate is 11.5). Nine new hospitals 
v/ere built, 20 remodeled or enlarged and one is under construction. 
Many boarding schools were closed or reduced in size and the person- 
nel improved. Some were developed as centers for older children and 
for broken or "problem" homes. 74 new community day schools were 
opened, enrolling 5,000 children. 6,34-0 more Indian children have 
enrolled in public schools. The states are cooperating in Indian ed- 
ucation. An Arts and Crafts Board has been created to raise workman- 
ship, establish authenticity and provide markets for handicrafts. 

PERSONNEL - The Old: Indians had few places and little prefer- 
ence in the Indian Service, except in the most menial positions. 

The New ; Indian employment in regular and emergency serv- 
ices greatly increased. In October 1939 a total of Ul+QQ Indians were 
employed in the Service, with 83 in the Washington Office. 

Opposition to the policies of the Indian Reorganization Act 
has come from many sources, both among the Indians and among the 
whites. Some of the opposition represents an honest difference of 
vie?/, much of it is selfish and a great deal of it is misinformed. 
Generally speaking, the opposition among white people is due either 
to self-interest in exploiting Indian lands, which the Indian Reor- 
ganization Act has stopped; to the policy of religious freedom which 
cuts under some of the privileges accorded missionaries in the past; 
or to the policy of permitting Indians to develop their own tribal 
life and handle their own affairs instead of being absorbed into the 
general population. 



u 



But John Collier and his colleagues have thus far weathered 
the storm of criticism that have come from many corners. They have 
suffered some bad losses, their program has been battered at times to 
a point of unrecognizability and the crusaders of old, now standing 
on the receiving end, have taken some nasty blows, of which not a few 
are foul. 

With it all the new day for the Indian moves forward. The 
Indian has gained new stature, he is proud, he is on the move, his 
land is being restored, his earnings are increasing, he is (in states 
that previously have denied him) winning the right of suffrage, his 
children are going to school, his arts, religions, languages, dances, 
ceremonials, handicrafts are reviving. He is finding it is honorable 
to be an Indian. And America is richer because this is true. 

# * * * # # 

Every Sunday afternoon through August 6, a radio program 
to interpret and supplement the Federal Exhibits at the New York 
World's Fair may be heard over the Columbia Broadcasting System from 
2 to 2:30 (Eastern Standard Time). 

The program, "Democracy in Action", is under the auspices 
of the U. S. Office of Education and succeeds "Americans All - Im- 
migrants All", recently named by the Women's National Radio Committee 
as the "most original and informative program" of the year. 

* * # # * # 

A number of individuals and organizations have asked that 
Alaska be opened for the "refugees." Secretary of the Interior Har- 
old L. Ickes in a preliminary report made public recently pointed out 
that lack of capital and limited transportation facilities now stand 
in the way of developing the territory. The Department has not made 
any recommendations, he said, with respect to specific settlement 
plans, as the problem involves aspects of national defense and im- 
migration completely beyond the jurisdiction of this Department. 

Time marches on. And the Federal Government has discovered 
airplanes are the most nearly accurate means of making a census of 
antelope and wild life on its Southern Wyoming grazing districts. 
According to reports, counting on horseback has never been as suc- 
cessful as this first census made from the air, because the herds 
always scatter so swiftly at the approach of a rider. 



15 



SENIOR CLASS AT CARSON AGENCY . NEVADA VISITS 
SAN FRANCISCO FAIR 





t 



Earning the first $50 by clearing ten 
acres of ground. 

national Exposition, particular- 
ly to the Indian presentation in 
the Federal Building where much 
of their handcraft is on display. 
But it would cost $500. Licked? 
No sireeej 

Th e first $50 came 
when the boys cleared ten acres 
of sagebrush. Next $50 from the 
sale of hot dogs and hamburgers 
at athletic events. Next $150 
from washing and ironing clothes - 



"You can get what 
you want if you really want 
it." 



That is the motto 
of the senior class of the 
Carson Indian School, Stew- 
art, Nevada. The thirty- 
four Indian boys and girls 
wanted their annual class 
trip in May to be a visit 
to the Golden Gate Inter 




The auto mechanics earning their $50 



a laundry project of the girls. 



Sixty dollars from repairing automobiles, earned by the boys in 
the auto mechanics shop. At the end of six months 
- $535. They are now working out a class song to 
the tune of "California, Here I Come.'" 





The girls earned their $50 by 
washing and ironing. 



Hot dogs - hamburgers 
coffee J 



16 



FIVE AWARDS IN COMPETITIVE EXHIBITION WON BY 
INDIAN CONSTRUCTION UNIT 




Navajo Council House 

Entering their work for the first time in the annual exhi- 
bition of the Association of Federal Architects, the architects in 
the Indian Service captured five awards. 

The Indian Service's construction division had only fifteen 
items on display among the thousand entered by architects in other 
governmental agencies, but the Indian booth was so colorfully deco- 
rated, that it attracted many visitors. 

Bright Indian blankets and rugs hung from the walls. A 
totem pole and an animated diorama showing Navajo craftsmen at work 
gave added interest to the displays. A photograph of the Navajo 
Council House and the Navajo Agency headquarters at Window Rock in 
Arizona, received first award in landscape design, and second award 
in photography. 

The photograph is tinted deeply in the striking shades of 
the Southwest Indian country. The huge rock ledge, with its natural 
opening which gives the town of Window Rock its name, is seen in the 
background. The colors are so shaded that one feels sunshine and 
warmth coming through the opening in the rock. The opening seems 
more comparable to a door than a "window." 



17 



The photograph was presented by Roy H. Bradley, District 
Supervisor of Construction in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It now hangs 
embellished by two ribbons in the office of W. Barton Greenwood, 
Chief Finance Officer and Business Manager in the Washington Of- 
fice. 

A second photograph, loaned by E. J. Armstrong, Assistant 
Finance Officer, received third award in photography. Similar to the 
subject above, the photograph is taken from a different angle and 
shows only the Navajo Council House and the rock ledge with its win- 
dow. To Milton Snow, a photographer at the Navajo Agency, goes cred- 
it. 

A model of the Standing Rock Dormitory by Carl Cederstrand 
won third award in architectural models. A two-story building, 
which, in its general architectural motif is colonial in character, 
the scale model is two and one-quarter inches high, ten inches long, 
and four inches wide. The windows, which are about three-eighths by 
five-eighths of an inch, have tiny bits of cellophane for window 
panes with shades and drapes painted in behind the shining cello- 
phane . 

The Standing Rock Dormitory, which was completed a year 
and a half ago, is similar to the dormitory buildings now under con- 
struction at Tongue River Agency, Fort Berthold Agency and Crow Creek 
Agency. 

The other individual prize winner, C. J. Poiesz, received 
third award in oil painting for a landscape. Mr. Poiesz, an archi- 
tectural engineer in the construction division, did his painting in 
his spare time as did Mr. Cederstrand his model. Both assisted in 
gathering the materials for display. 

It was largely through the encouragement of Edward A. Poyn- 
ton, Indian Service Director of Construction and a new member of the 
Board of Directors of the Association of Federal Architects, that the 
construction division entered the competition this year. 

This eighth annual exhibition of the Association of Federal 
Architects represented the work of individuals and bureaus within the 
Federal Government in architectural models, design, rendering, photo- 
graphy, water colors, oils, and other closely allied fields. It was 
held in the National Museum, Washington, D. C, during the month of 
May. 



<T> O O 



18 



CATTLE RAISING ON THE SAN CARLOS RESERVATION IN ARIZONA 



By Harry Stevens, CCC-ID Camp Assistant 




In years past, to speak 
of Indian cattle in Arizona, 
was to speak of wild, off-col- 
ored, scrubby stock, branded 
from neck to rump, "burned", 
as it were; hard to work, and 
usually hard to find. Such is 
not the case at the present 
time, especially when the grade 
of stock raised on the San Car- 
los Apache Reservation is con- 
cerned. The cattle grazed on 
our reservation compare favor- 
ably with the best grade of 
Hereford stock in the entire 
Southwest. The San Carlos A- 
pache led the Indian Service 
in the number s"old and gross 
revenue derived therefrom in 
1937. Almost 12,000 head were 
sold for an average of $32 per 
head. Instead of the weekly 
ration issued to the captured 
Indian by the Army commissary 
in 1890, he now has a family 
income of $731.00. But let us 
go back a few years ago when 
the Arizona Apaches were look- 
ed upon as a war-like tribe, 
killing and despoiling the 



the Southwestern pioneer. Most 
historical accounts dealing 
with Indians in Arizona describe 
the Apache as a "hide o usly cruel 
and bloodthirsty" individual. 
It appears from all accounts 
that the Apache was not looked 
upon as a potential and success- 
ful cattleman. 

The San Carlos Apache In- 
dian Reservation was created by 
Presidential Order, December 14, 
1872. In this Order, Camp Grant 
on the San Pedro River was abol- 
ished and all Aravaipa Apaches 
under their chief, Eskiminzin, 
were moved to San Carlos in 
March, 1873. The Chiricahua A- 
paches numbering 325 moved to 
San Carlos in 1876. This oc- 
curred after the death of their 
chief, Cochise. Approximately 
1800 Indians were on the census 
rolls, but from mismanagement 
or frequent changes of Indian 
agents, there were constant 
troubles, desertions and re- 
captures. Though the presence 
of many different and mutually 



19 



hostile bands made it necessary 
that they be segregated in dis- 
tant camps, there was no serious 
trouble with the masses; the In- 
dian police rendered good serv- 
ices and good progress was re- 
ported in small tract gardening 
in 1875. In 1879, the popula- 
tion increased to ^,652. This 
was due to other bands from oth- 
er parts of the Territory being 
moved to San Carlos. 

The Beginning Of The Cattle 

Bancroft, in his "History 
of Arizona and New Mexico" 
said: "As to the general pros- 
pects of the reservation In- 
dians of all tribes, they can- 
not be said to be very encour- 
aging. A mountainous, min ing 
country, where white men can 
hardly be made to behave them- 
selves, is not fit to be an In- 
dian reservation. " But it did 
not take the white man long to 
find out that the reservation 
was fit for one thing and that 
one thing was grazing. Early 
in the nineties, the Chiricahua 
Cattle Company obtained a per- 
mit to graze 200 head of cat- 
tle on the Ash Flat range, to 
the north of what is now Fort 
Thomas. More and more big cow 
outfits moved in. By 1920, 
five -eighths of the reservation 
was under lease to white cattle 
growers. The best watered and 
choicest Dart r>f the reserva- 
tion was included in these five- 
eighths. 

Then came James B. Kitch, 
since retired, and with him in 
1923 came a new era for the A- 
paches. Expired grazing leases 
were not renewed. Considerable 
pressure was brought to bear 
through Washington channels to 



In 1880, the renegade 
chiefs, Geronimo and Juh, with 
108 Oniric ahuas were brought 
in from old liexico. It was at 
this time that Vittorio, with 
J+0 other Chiricahua A p aches 
escaped to avoid the transfer 
to San Carlos and did bloody 
work in Mexico. Later he was 
killed by Mexicans during one 
of his raids in Mexico. 



Industry At San Carlos 

have the leases renewed, but 
Jim Kitch and the Apaches were 
successful in their stand. 

At the present time, there 
are no white cattle growers 
leasing grazing land from the 
Apaches, and it is the inten- 
tion of the adminis tra tion 
that there will be none in the 
future. 

We have now what is gen- 
erally recognized as the larg- 
est registered herd of Here- 
fords in the Southwest. Some 
600 registered Herefords were 
purchased during the drought 
in 1934 by the government for 




Checking Cattle After Roundup 



20 



the San Carlos Indians. The 
number has increased to 1200. 
Registration will be kept on 
4.00 of these and the balance 
will be used as a breeding 
herd for reimbursable heifers. 

Young male Indians over 
21 years of age, of good char- 
acter and desirous of going in- 
to the cattle business are 
chosen by the Tribal Council 
annually, as recipients of 20 
head of choice yearling heif- 
ers. The young Indian is giv- 
en ample time to repay the 
tribe for these heifers, and 
as sales are made from off- 
spring steers under his brand, 
a small semi-annual payment is 
taken. The registered and 
purebred herd is owned by the 
tribe. Other cattle on the 
reservation are owned by indi- 
vidual Indians, there being 
about 600 brands totaling 25, 
000 head of cattle. In the 
recent dispersal of the famous 
Painter Hereford herd in Colo- 
rado, Domino C366, reputedly 
one of the top bulls in the 
nation, was sold to the San 
Carlos Indians. In the same 
bargain one of his yearling 




Interested Cattle Owners During Counting 



offspring bulls also came to 
the reservation. 

For many years, we have 
been buying registered bulls 
for replacement on the various 
ranges, but with the acquisi- 
tion of such prize animals as 
Domino C366 and his offspring, 
we plan on raising on our own. 
These two bulls will be bred 
with the select of our regis- 
tered females and we plan to 
take the best part of Ash Flat 
range as a strictly registered 
herd pasture, it being the 
most accessible and choicest. 
In fact, the Tribal Council 
has just passed an ordinance 
to that effect. Artificial 
insemination is being studied 
b y our stockmen w i th the 
thought in mind of extending 
the usefulness of these two 
great sires. Naturally, all 
pertinent information r e la- 
tive to artificial insemina- 
tion will be taught to the 
Indians. All other phases of 
good stock raising have been 
given them. 

Since the inception of 
Indian Emergency Conservation 
Work on the San Carlos Reser- 
vation, the projects accom- 
plished will be those which 
will greatly aid in the work- 
ing of cattle. Over 4.00 miles 
of boundary and range division 
fences have been built, almost 
100 earthen and concrete water 
tanks have been constructed, 
stock drives cleared, springs 
and wells developed. T h ese 
emergency appropriations have 
given the Apaches a new lease 
on life. The work has taken 
him to all sections of his 
domain, it has given him added 
income, and a greater realiza- 



21 



tion of the possibilities of 
self-support. The San Carlos 
Apache already has self-govern- 
ment, given to him through the 
Reorganization Act of 1934- 
( W h e e ler-Howard Bill ) . All 
tribal affairs are controlled 
by a representative tribal 



council Composed of seven e- 
lected members of the tribe, 
one of which serves as chair- 
man. Indian Emergency Conser- 
vation Work came just at the 
time when the cattle working 
facilities were badly in need 
of repair. 



Business - Like Methods Used By The Indians 
In The Management Of Their Cattle Industry 



The reservation g r azing 
area is. divided into 15 dis- 
tinct or associated ranges. 
Clans, or family groups, have 
been assigned each range, and 
cattle associations with elec- 
tive officers at their head 
have been formed. It has been 
the practice of the San Carlos 
Apaches to~ sell or butcher all 
undesirable animals running on 
the range. All scrubby, off- 
colored and inferior stock is 
disposed of as soon as they 
are rounded up. Each cattle 
association takes on the work- 
ing appearance of a large cat- 
tle ranch, or better yet # a 
cooperative livestock organi- 
zation. Roundups are held each 
spring and fall; calves brand- 
ed; steers dehorned; the cutting 
out of cattle offered for sale; 
and repairs made to cattle as- 
sociation equipment. Current 
market prices greatly determine 
the class of cattle offered for 
sale. Invitations to bid are 
sent to the most reputable cat- 
tle buyers of the Southwest. 
Sale cattle are divided into 
various classes and bids re- 
ceived for each lot, either 
by head or pound. Bids are 
opened, read, and sold to the 
highest bidder when all cattle 
association members owning 



cattle in the sale herd have 
agreed that the price offered 
is suitable. 

At a September sale of 
1900 head, 4.00 head of year- 
ling dehorned steers brought 
a top price of $37.96. This 
year the Indian Office has not 
yet notified us of our compar- 
ative standing with other res- 
ervations in the number sold 
and average price received, 
but we feel sure that our 
standing will be about the 
same as in 1937. For 1938, we 
have sold almost 11,000 head 
for an average of $32 per head. 
A grazing fee of $5 per head 
sold is deducted on every head 
from each cattle check made 
out to the Indian cattle owner. 
Roundup chuck, the pay of round- 
up expenses are paid from this 
fund. The purchase of salt 
and cottonseed cake for bull 
feed is also paid from this 
fund. 

As yet, the cattle manage- 
ment plan is not perfected. 
Though leading the Indian 
Service in the number sold and 
money taken in, several phases 
of our program are to be en- 
larged. About 400 of the 700 
families on the reservation 



22 



are numbered as cattle owners. 
What to do with the remaining 
300 is the big problem facing 
the tribal leaders. The Trib- 
al Council has just passed an 
ordinance setting off a big 
portion of the eastern range 
as a tribal herd pasture. The 
plan will be to graze a herd 

* # # 



of approximately 5,000 head of 
cattle for the benefit of all 
members of the tribe over 65 
and not cattle owners, and 
for those who are widows, or- 
phans, crippled or blind. The 
San Carlos Apache is endeavor- 
ing to establish his own so- 
cial security. 

» # * 



UNUSUAL INDIAN MURALS COMPLETED BY MAYNARD DIXON 



The American Indian pictured neither as a scalping "sav- 
age", nor as a member of a dying race "at the end of the trail", 
but as a vital human being passing through the transitions required 
by the invasion of an overwhelming foreign civilization; this is the 
portrayal of Indian life in the murals of Maynard Dixon, just put on 
view in the Indian Office section of the new Department of the In- 
terior Building. 

Mr. Dixon, an old friend and a staunch advocate of the In- 
dian, was chosen from a large field of aspirants for the difficult 
and exacting task of painting the Indian as he is today, and as he 
was at the close of the period of military conquest. 

The murals represent the passing of the old regime for 
the Indian and the beginning of the new era. In the first group, 
a scout, carrying a Sharp's rifle and a soldier resting on his sword 
faces two Indians. One Indian has. a war club, the other a pipe of 
peace. The figures are silhouetted against a broad sweep of West- 
ern prairie sky. Above them clouds are forming, thickening towards 
the West. Symbolically, a herd of buffalo are disappearing into the 
distance. 

In the second mural, the white man is depicted teaching 
the Indians the arts of peace and civilization. A farm agent holds 
a handful of soil, explaining to an Indian boy, new agricultural 
methods and techniques, while his parents, representing the former 
culture, look on. The old Indian is dressed in overalls, but* has 
the moccasins, long hair and blanket of his ancestors. The older 
people are suspicious and hold aloof. But the young boy has already 
the close-cut hair and shoes of the new generation, is eager to learn 
and to benefit from the white man's experience. A wooden barn re- 
places the buffalo. A single stalk of corn towers over the old In- 
dian's head, showing the reliance of the Indian on the fecundity of 
the soil in his present-day economy. Again the figures are silhouetted 
against a broad yellow sky and the dark stretch of cloud has some- 
what receded. 



23 



The concept of these two murals shows Mr. Dixon's unusual 
understanding of Indian psychology and life. The faces of the In- 
dians are a composite of many Indian traits and characteristics, for 
Mr. Dixon is one of the few outstanding painters who combine authen- 
tic art with a deep knowledge of the Indian. During the last fifty 
years, he has been among Indians from Canada to Mexico , the Black - 
feet . Flatheads . Nez Perces . Paiute, Shoshone, Hopi , Navajo and Pueb- 
lo Indians. He has an intimate familiarity with their ways and has 
been the only white witness at numerous ceremonials. 

Maynard Dixon began his work on a newspaper in San Fran- 
cisco, also making illustrations for Western fiction and leading 
magazines. His paintings, interpreting the life and country of the 
West, hang in the foremost galleries of the West - the San Francisco 
Museum of Art, the de Young Museum of San Francisco, the Southwest 
Museum, Los Angeles , and the Pasadena Art Institute. His murals 
decorate the Arizona-Biltmore Hotel in Phoenix^ the Mark Hopkins 
Hotel in §an Francisco , the reading room of the California State 
Library in Sacramento , the San Francisco Office of the U. S. Build- 
ing and Loan Association, Fremont High School, Los Angeles f and two 
walls, Grass Lands and Plowed Lands, 60 x 100 feet, at the Golden 
Gate International Exposition at Treasure Island. 

Mr. Dixon has been a zealous and articulate crusader for 
Indian betterment over a period of many years, both as an artist 
and as an active member of the American Indian Defense Association. 



******* 

HERMAN W. JOHANNES RESIGNS AS MANAGER OF 
MENOMINEE INDIAN MILLS IN WISCONSIN 



The resignation of Herman W. Johannes as Manager of the 
Menominee Indian Mills at Neopit, Wisconsin has been announced by 
the Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes. 

Acceptance of the resignation, Secretary IcKes explained, 
followed Mr. Johannes 1 request that he be relieved of his post to ac- 
cept private employment. 

"It is with real regret that I have accepted the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Johannes," Secretary Ickes said. "During his administra- 
tion since September 1935, the Mills have been operated at a substan- 
tial profit to the Menominee Indians." 



25 



INDIANS AND INDIAN MATTERS AS GLIMPSED IN THE DAILY PRESS 

By Doris C. Brodt 



(Editor's Note: The following digest of newspaper clip- 
pings on subjects concerning Indians and the Indian Service is in- 
tended only to present a sampling of the varied material clipped 
from daily papers. Clippings received from Indian country and from 
the metropolitan dailies still do not constitute a complete coverage 
but the items briefed here may serve as a representative selection. 
In most cases the items appeared in a large number of newspapers, 
but to save space and avoid duplication, only one paper is mentioned 
in each case. It is hoped that similar digests will appear in "In- 
dians at Work" from time to time. 

Out of over 300 treaties of our forefathers with the Red- 
skins, there have arisen against the Government claims for more than 
five billions of dollars and scores of disputes. Hunting and fishing 
rights of Washington and Oregon Indians; alleged claim to the bed of 
the Niagara River by New York Indians; attempted employment of Arizo- 
na Indians of white men to kill bears, which are destroying large 
numbers of cattle on the Fort Apache Reservation; lawfully unlicensed 
dogs of California Indians killing sheep of the local sheepmen; dec- 
laration of independence from New York State Government by the Sen- 
ecas of New York State; the technical existence of warfare between 
the Federal Government and the Florida Seminoles; and the unsettled 
state of battle between the New York State Indians and Germany - all 
constitute reasons for the innumerable disputes with the Government. 
Baltimore t Md. Evening Sun . 5-31-39 . 

The Indian population is on the increase. While better 
conditions have been provided, the increase in population has over- 
balanced the economic betterment afforded the Indians. They will 
work. The Government is encouraging them to use their land for farm- 
ing and cattle raising so they can help raise themselves above a mere 
subsistence level. Lansing , Michigan . Journal . 5-2-39 . 

Superintendent Alida C. Bowler was appointed by Secretary 
of Labor Perkins to membership on a Conference on Children in a Dem- 
ocracy, organized by President Roosevelt. Because of her wide ex- 
perience in child work, having been connected for several years with 
the Children's Bureau, Miss Bowler is especially well-fitted for 
membership in the Conference. San Francisco , Cal. Chronicle . 5-5-39 * 

The Navajo Tribal Council decided to apply for a Federal 
loan of $50,000 for the sawmill project and an amount for the flour 
mill. The Council proposed to secure the loans by tribal funds and 
make repayments from profits of the mills. Albuquerque , N. M . Jour- 
nal . 5-20-39 . 



26 



Extension of social disease control work among Indians is 
to be furthered by the cooperation of the Health Department and the 
Indian Service, as the result of a conference of these agencies, 
called at the request of United States Surgeon General Thomas Parran. 
Albuquerque , N. M . Tribune . 5-19-39 . 

Because of inaccessibility to office records and because 
of the expense involved, Re ore sent at ive D. A. Reed, Republican from 
New York, protested against moving the Office of Indian Affairs from 
Salamanca, Nevr York, to Buffalo. Assistant Secretary Chapman assured 
Honorable Reed that consideration would be given this protest. New 
York , N. Y. Herald-Tribune . 5-25-39 . 

Action has been taken to prevent the WPA from destroying 
the famous Indian mound at McKees Rocks Borough, long a mecca for 
student and archaeological expeditions and one of Western Pennsyl- 
vania's best-known sight-seeing spots of invaluable historical in- 
terest. WPA aims to dynamite the mound for stones for use on a road 
project. Pittsburgh, Pa . Press . 5-23-39 . 

The Navajo Tribal Council has accepted a grant of $32,750 
from the Farm Security Administration for erection of facilities at 
the annual tribal fair, for Indian homes and for aid to destitute In- 
dians. The council also approved a five-year lease to a Pittsburgh 
mining firm for the development of a vanadium deposit on the Navajo 
Reservation. Meeting the problems of trachoma and dentistry among 
Indians was discussed by Dr. W. W. Peter, Navajo Medical Director. 
Phoenix , Arizona . Journal . 5-17-39 . 

The 1939 graduating class of the Phoenix Indian School is 
representative of Indian boys and girls of 12 Southwestern Indian 
tribes. Graduates majored variously in painting, masonry, agricul- 
ture, plumbing, carpentry, printing, auto mechanics, electricity and 
home economics. Phoenix. Arizona . Republic . 5-18-39 . 

The Navajo Tribal Council at a meeting held recently, gave 
no indication that it would file an appeal in the Arizona tribal test 
suit, upholding the Federal Government's right to restrict livestock 
grazing on a reservation. A resolution was approved by the Council 
limiting future filling station or trading post permits to Indians. 
Revision of the Indian Service law enforcement code was also studied 
by the Council. Phoenix, Arizona . Republic . 5-18-39 . 

The Government is carrying on extensive experiments to de- 
termine the breed of sheep that will yield the greatest quantity and 
best quality of wool for Navajo blankets. At the Southwestern Range 
and Sheep Breeding Laboratory on the Navajo Reservation, Navajo women 
make rugs from varieties of wool fibers differently processed. Im- 
proved breeding methods are also being used. To test the durability 
of the different types of wool, several of the rugs have been placed 
upon the floor of the cafeteria of the Interior Department. Boston , 
Mass. Christian Science Monitor . 5-22 -39 . 



27 



Picture of Mabel Burnside, Navajo Indian of Fort Wingate, 
New Mexico, showing her dyeing and art work to Kathleen Norris, the 
famous novelist, at the Indian Exhibit at the San Francisco Fair. 
San Francisco, California. San Francisco Examiner . 5-16-39 * 

The thirty-five members of the graduating class of the Car- 
son Indian School's high school were taken to the San Francisco 
World's Fair. Funds for the trip were earned by the students.) 
Reno. Nevada . Gazette . 5-16-39 . 5-17-39 . 

Discovery of a mound containing a number of Indian relics, 
presumably of prehistoric Hopewell Indians, was made at North Benton, 
Ohio, by Richard G. Morgan, Curator of Archaeology for the Ohio State 
Museum. Cleveland. Ohio. Cleveland Plain Dealer . 5-10-39 . 

Indian students of the Carson Indian School and students in 
Carson and Stewart grammar and high schools, showing a surprising a- 
mount of talent, will enter an art contest, it was announced by the 
Nevada Art Association. Carson City . Nevada . Appeal . 5-12-39 . 

Representative Burdick proposed, in a House joint resolu- 
tion, that "The Rescue", an 87-year-old statue on the Capitol steps, 
depicting a frontiersman rescuing a white woman and child from an In- 
dian, be removed. It is a "constant reminder of ill will toward the 
Indian," Mr. Burdick complains. Washington. D. C. Washington Post . 
4-27-39 . 

Because they feared such an act would indicate an obliga- 
tion on their part toward the Government, thereby cancelling the 
tribe's traditional non-peace with the Government, the Seminole In- 
dians of Florida sought to cash WPA pay checks without endorsement. 
Tampa, Florida . Tribune . 6-4-39. 

Seneca Indians declare their independence from New York 
State laws governing crime, hunting and fishing and highway traffic, 
etc., which they hold are not applicable to them as wards of the 
Federal Government. The Council of Chiefs, these Indians maintain, 
is best qualified to direct internal affairs of the Seneca Nation. 
Washington . D. C. Washington Post . 5-8-39 . 

Governor Bottolfesen of Idaho attended a social at the Buf- 
falo Lodge ceremonial hall on the Fort Hall Reservation. Speaking to 
the Indians of the Shoshone and Bannock Tribes, the Governor com- 
mended them highly as farmers, businessmen and upright and loyal cit- 
izens of the county. Blackf oot . Idaho . Daily Bulletin . 5-3-39 . 

As the result of a conference of Indians, Indian Office of- 
ficials and Federal and State authorities, determination will be made 
in Federal Court as to state jurisdiction over the Indians in the 
matter of license fees for fishing. The Indians insist, because of 



28 



ancient treaties, upon permission to take fish from state waters 
without paying for the privilege. Spokane , Washington . Daily Chron - 
icle . 5-31-39 . 

A recent bulletin of the Smithsonian Institution reports 
that the Yaruros, a primitive tribe of Venezuelan Indians, have as 
their only consolation in life the event of death, which they believe 
is a wonderful time of material plenty and reunion with their dead 
relatives. Washington , D. C . Herald . 5-13-39 . 

Nevada Indians occupied feature positions in the Sacramento 
three-day parade and rodeo celebration. Reno, Nevada. Gazette , 
5-8-39. ~ 

The distribution of a stumpage dividend of $64., 000 is being 
made to the Menominee Indian Tribe in Wisconsin, on a per capita 
basis among the Tribe's enrollment. Madison , Wisconsin . Times . 

Cheyenne, Wyoming, may have a group of Indians, located in 
an Indian village, as a permanent summer attraction for tourists. 
Depending upon definite arrangements as to the price the Indians will 
demand, it is estimated that 12 to 20 Shoshones and Arapahos from the 
Wind River Reservation will participate. Cheyenne . Wyoming . Trib- 
une . 5-16-39 . 

Indian CCC enrollees at Pierre, South Dakota, celebrated 
the sixth anniversary of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Speeches 
on the value of the CCC-ID organization, games and dancing were en- 
joyed by more than 75 guests. Washington . D. C. Happy Days . 5-6-39 . 

Nez Perce Indians, in tribal regalia, featured in the dedi- 
cation ceremonies of the Lewiston-Clarkston Bridge. Spokane , Wash- 
ington . Spokane Daily Chronicle . 5-25-39 . 

The Consolidated Chippewa Agency Tribal Council, meeting 
with new officers, outlined the following five-point program: to 
provide permanent child health camps and a CCC camp for Chippewa In- 
dian children this summer; to assure WPA sewing projects which would 
furnish work for Indian women and free clothing for needy Indians, 
would be continued; to give Minnesota Chippewaa $75,000 for a 1939 
road program to obtain seed for 1939 planting from the Extension and 
Credit Departments of the Indian Service; to have Nay-Tah-Wash, Oni- 
gum, Nett Lake and Inger included in next year's school appropria- 
tion. Duluth . Minnesota . News -Tribune . 5-9-39 . 

A memorial to Tsali, Cherokee Indian hero, will be erected 
with funds raised by Knoxville school children at Gatlinburg, Ten- 
nessee. Chattanooga . Tennessee . News . 5-15-39 . 



29 



A KICKAPOO WAR VETERAN TELLS HIS STORY 



By Richard Simon, Full-Blood 




Portable Rock Crusher Operating On Surface 
Project. Kickapoo Reservation, Oklahoma 



For 

the p a st 
three years 
I have been 
s u b-f oreman 
on road work 
on the Kick- 
apoo Reser- 
vation under 
the juris- 
diction o f 
the Potawa- 
tomi Agency 
in Kansas. 



Last 
year, with 

the help of Mr. Martin D. Cheadle, the farm agent, I was fortunate 
in getting a farm loan. This, I considered a first step toward 
self-support. I had hard luck by losing two horses, a cow and a 
brood sow, but I raised a good crop and in spite of this loss I was 
able to pay $150 on my loan and I still have about 300 bushels of 
corn and about 10 tons of hay. 

My grown son helped me farm and I was able to get in e- 
nough work to help with the family groceries - otherwise the loss 
of so much stock would have hurt a lot when I had to pay the rent. 
My wife canned over 100 quarts of vegetables and fruit and we al- 
so sold about $4.00 worth of butter and eggs each week. 

The road program is helping in many ways to rehabilitate 
our Indians. Our surfacing projects are making good roads to 
schools, to stores, to churches, and to the market. We used to be 
in the mud all the time when it rained. Now when we have to go 
places, we can go. It also helps the mail carrier. 

I wish to take this opportunity to express my sincerest 
thanks to each member of the Potawatomi Indian Agency staff. They 
have made it possible for me to give my family some of the finer 
things in life which I think are so important to a good home. 



********* 



30 




31 



INDIANS AT RED LAKE , MINNESOTA , MEET PROBLEMS OF A CHANGING WORLD 

By Mary M. Kirkland, Social Worker, 
and 

Clarence W. Ringey, Farm Agent 



(Editor's Note: This is the concluding part of an 
article on the Chippewa Indians of Red Lake Reservation. 
Part One appeared in May. 

Saving The Land 

A careful soil study indicates that the western portion 
of the reservation is particularly suitable for grasses, grains and 
legumes, and these can be grown here very successfully. 

The result of a survey taken during 1936 and 1937, in 
which 26 farmers in neighboring territory were requested to fill out 
questionnaires, is enlightening in that it reveals that 18 out of 
the 26 farmers questioned have lived on their present sites for 26 
years or longer. Only one out of this group has ever received re- 
lief in any form and he was paid from relief money because of the 
fact that he used his own truck on a small gravel job. The rea- 
sons for choosing these particular sites were disclosed: the pro- 
ductiveness of the land; the fact that the land is easily prepared 
for crops and the desire for more good farm land. The vegetation 
in this area is especially suitable for grazing and many of these 
farmers have found it financially beneficial to engage in the rais- 
ing of livestock. 

One of these farmers farmed on the reservation as early as 
1916. Others learned of the possibilities, and each year saw an in- 
creasing interest being taken in the agricultural area of the reser- 
vation. In 1932, five new farmers came to the reservation, and in 
1935 ten other new farmers made use of the opportunity to engage in 
profitable farming. 

The principal crops grown by these farmers are flax, bar- 
ley, sweet clover and alfalfa. These are good cash crops and t he 
adjacent area has created a good reputation and is recognized as the 
leading sweet clover seed producing area in the world. 

The great demand for the use of reservation lands by white 
farmers made it evident that a program might be developed in favor 
of the Red Lake Indians. The tribal council approved a leasing pro- 
gram whereby white farmers could obtain a legal permit of from one 
to five years on land to be leased for agricultural purposes. 



32 



Thirty-eight bids were received for land permits, of which 
we now have in force twenty-three bonded permits, with approved 
cropping programs that do not deplete soil fertility. The minimum 
rental is 25 per cent of the crop delivered to market. This program 
results in the proper preparation and farming of land by experienced 
farmers, the proceeds of which are deposited in the tribal fund. As 
a result, when we have a qualified Indian who wishes to make use of 
some of his land, he is given the opportunity to take over this ]?md 
at the expiration of the lease and he will have a farm that has 
been properly prepared and is in good condition to bring profitable 
returns during average years. 

As mentioned before, the Chippewa Indian is not agricul- 
turally inclined and has not to date responded to this program. The 
great amount of available employment tends to discourage agricultur- 
al pursuits. Few of the present adults who have become very wage- 
conscious are expected to choose farming as a career voluntarily be- 
cause they are not accustomed to assuming such responsibility. 

Hope Lies In The Coming Generation 



Our great hope lies in the generation that is now active 
in 4-H Club work, as members and students of the Smith Hughs Depart- 
ment in our well-equipped agricultural high school. These young 
people, when they leave school, are equipped with a sufficient back- 
ground and instilled with a desire to make their livelihoods from 
the large area of agricultural land at their disposal. This group 
of youngsters has already shown more interest in agriculture than 
has been shown by any group since the beginning of commercial fish- 
ing. 

It is further planned to educate the Smith Hughs students 
in a practical way, by having them work and manage a large diversi- 
fied farm during their Smith Hughs training. In this way they will 
graduate with a complete knowledge, as a result of this practical 
experience, and will have proven their ability before they embark on 
their life.' s career. 

There are approximately 600 children of school age on the 
Red Lake Reservation. The educational facilities on this reserva- 
tion consist of three .elementary schools, one vocational high school 
and one Catholic mission school. The educational program for In- 
dians in the State of Minnesota is operated by the State, by con- 
tract with the Federal Government. There are no government schools 
in Minnesota with the exception of one boarding school at Pipestone. 
The Red Lake High School is a fully equipped and accredited voca- 
tional school with the Smith Hughs Department of Agriculture and 
Home Economics. The aim of the vocational agricultural department 
is to produce some agriculturally-minded and agriculturally-trained 



33 



boys who will utilize the lands which at present are either not be- 
ing used, or are being leased by neighboring white farmers. This 
program will be 
elude evening school 
for those actively en- 
gaged in farming and 
w i 11 supervise farm 
practices of all voca- 
tional students. The 
agriculture studen t s 
at the Red Lake High 
School are members of 
the Future Farmers of 
A me ri ca Association. 
The home economi c s 
course coincides with 
the vocational a gri- 
cultural program a s 

much as possible. 

Second And Third Grade Group. 

Ponemah Public School 

Red Lake Conducts Extensive CCC Program 

There is an extensive CCC program on this reservation which 
has contributed much toward the development and toward the long life, 
of the Red Lake timber by the construction of truck trails, lookout 
towers, blister-rust control and reforestation projects. In addition 
to this work, there is an extensive educational program for CCC-ID 
enrollees. During the past year, evening courses have been offered 
in general mechanics, forestry, cooking, woodworking, drafting, map- 
making, first-aid and agriculture at the Red Lake High School. These 
classes have been taught by members of the school faculty and by mem- 
bers of the CCC-ID personnel. 

The greatest handicap in the educational program has been 
the constant turnover of men and it has not been possible to keep 
one group throughout the completion of a course and have them con- 
tinue to a more advanced type of work. 

The lumbering and fishing industries do not provide suffi- 
cient employment for all employable persons on the Red Lake Reserva- 
tion, and as an outgrowth of this condition, there are a number of 
social and economic problems. 

The greatest economic problem comes from the fact that 
most of the employment is seasonal, and during the spring and sum- 
mer months there is sufficient employment for everyone, but in the 
late fall and winter the problem becomes acute. There is a lack of 
realization on the part of the Indian that it is possible for him to 




3U 



maintain the same standard of living throughout the year. It is 
safe to say that most of the social problems grow out of poor eco- 
nomic conditions and conditions common to any racial group which is 
in a transitory state. 

The Future Lies In Conservation 



The future of the Red Lake Reservation lies in the conser- 
vation of its natural resources and in the development of its poten- 
tial ones. This can be done by educating the Indian to the realiza- 
tion that his total dependency upon the natural resources which are 
now available, fishing and lumbering, will at best provide a stan- 
dard of living which fluctuates between affluence and privation; 
whereas by educating him to utilize the potential resources - the 
agricultural lands - his standard of living will be more or less 
equalized throughout the year, while, at the same time, become pro- 
gressively better. With the natural resources to augment his in- 
come and food supply, the Indian can eventually become independent 
of outside assistance. 




Pe Tah Ge Shig Of Ponemah Raises Excellent Corn. 
Red Lake, Ilinnesota. 



****** 

The vacationing automobile traveler this summer may be 
pleased to know that representative sections of Mount Rainier Na- 
tional Park , in Southern Washington , are now accessible to him over 
good roads, and that comfortable hotels, cabins and camp grounds 
have been provided at four different centers in scenic sections. 
Expecting a large increase over the seven million visitors to the 
27 national parks in 1938, the National Park Service has opened high- 
ways in Yellowstone, Glacier and other parks earlier this year than 
usual. 



35 



THE RIGHT REVEREND MONSIGNOR WILLIAM HUGHES DIES 
By Reverend J. B. Tennelly, 
Director, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions 



Father Hughes, as he was affectionately known to thousands 
of Indians and to hundreds of Catholic missionaries and workers in 
the Indian Service, ended his strenuous life on May 6, 1939* in a 
hospital at Long Beach, California. 

Twenty-five years of his life had been spent in almost con- 
tinuous service to the Indians and to the Catholic Indian missions, 
with the exception of his brief service as U. S. Army Chaplain with 
the 335th Field Artillery, 87th Division, during the World War, and 
with the Army of Occupation in Germany after the Armistice. Shortly 
after his ordination to the priesthood in 1905, he was placed in 
charge of the Mission Indians on the Soboba, Cahuilla and Los Coyotes 
Reservations in California. 

From that time dated his life-long interest in the spiritu- 
al and temporal welfare of the Indians. Not only was he from the 
first a zealous pastor, but he also actively joined with the few 
friends of the Mission Indians of California in efforts to protect 
them from heartless encroachments upon their few remaining rights. 

He was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau of Cath- 
olic Indian Missions in Washington, D. C, in 1910, and Director in 
1921, an office which he filled until 1935, when his resignation 
caused deep regret to his many co-workers and countless friends. 

Father Hughes' championship of Indian rights never flagged, 
although he always put it second in importance to his duty, as repre- 
sentative of the Church, to promote the religious welfare of the In- 
dians entrusted to his pastoral care, and later, to his supervision 
of general Catholic mission interests. Between the two, the Indian's 
temporal and his religious welfare, he saw no conflict of interests, 
but regarded them rather as genuine correlatives. This was the key- 
note of his program of action. 

His great and tireless effort was naturally the maintenance 
of the seventy Catholic Indian day and boarding schools, together 
with other religious activities on eighty-one reservations in the 
United States and Alaska. 

Along with this was his persevering and successful aim to 
promote friendly relations and cooperation between the Catholic mis- 
sionaries and the Indian Service. He, himself, was the embodiment of 



this friendly spirit of cooperation. He enthusiastically welcomed 
the program of Indian welfare outlined in the Meriara Survey and the 
provisions of the Wheeler-Howard Act for Indian rehabilitation which 
attempted to carry it out. He endeavored to explain to the Catholic 
workers among the Indians and to the Catholic public the practical 
working of this program and to secure for it their interest and co- 
operation, believing, as he did, that it offered great opportunities 
and advantages to the Indians. 

Father Hughes' endowments of heart, mind and will enabled 
him to serve well both his Church and the Indians. His genuine in- 
terest in Indians, his understanding of their problems, his personal 
uprightness and singleness of purpose, his friendliness and his abil- 
ity to understand others' points of view, won him the abiding con- 
fidence and respect of his co-workers in the Indian mission field, of 
men and women in the Indian Service, and of the Catholic people in 
this country, Indians and whites alike. He justly deserves to be 
remembered among those who have labored long, enthusiastically and 
unselfishly for and with the Indians. 

* * -x- # # * 

OLD DAYS AND TRADITIONS LIVED AGAIN BY WESTERN SHOSHONE 
( NEVADA ) INDIANS IN ANNUAL JULY ENCAMPMENT AT OWYHEE 

Every year during the week of the Fourth of July, each 
Paiute and Shoshone Indian family, with bag and baggage, is loaded 
into the family wagon and moved to a selected spot along the river 
bottom. Here they pitch camp, under the direction of a camp fore- 
man who arranges the teepees in a semi-circular formation with the 
opening to the East. This particular arrangement is to permit the 
sun, their ancient Creator, to enter their encampment each morning 
and watch over them throughout the day. 

During the daytime, horse racing, bucking horses, calf- 
roping, and other games of skill on horseback are featured. With 
the approach of night, all families return to their camps to cook 
and eat their evening meal. After darkness has overtaken the camp, 
everyone joins in the many forms of recreation enjoyed by their fore- 
fathers. The children gather in the darkness and amuse themselves 
with childish pranks. The young people gather in the center of the 
camp grounds where they amuse themselves with, the old tribal dances 
accompanied by the rhythm of the tom-tom. The older people sit in 
sociable groups and play the ancient stick game until the wee hours 
of the morning. 

After a week of recreation through enjoyment of old trib- 
al customs, the Indian again returns to the white man's customs of 
abode and earning a living. ( Excer pt from Western Shoshone Annual 
Report . ) 



37 



ALMOST ONE HUNDRED INDIAN GROUPS HAVE ADOPTED NSW CONSTITUTIONS 



As this issue goes to press, the number of tribes having 
adopted constitutions under the Indian Reorganization Act approaches 
the hundred mark. The Quartz Valley Indians are ninety-eighth on the 
list, and two other tribal elections on constitutions are pending. 
The following recent elections have been reported: 

Three tribes, mentioned below, who have just voted over- 
whelmingly to apply for charters of incorporation under the Act bring 
the total number of chartered tribes up to 70. Other elections are 
pending. 

The Manchester (California) Indians rejected an amendment 
to extend the term of office to two years instead of one, but ap- 
proved a second amendment to give their tribal council the right to 
expell any member of the council for neglect of duty or misconduct. 

Amendments passed by the Oneida Indians of Wisconsin were 
similar to those acted on by the Manchester Group, simply clarifying 
difficulties encountered in constitutional procedure. 

Here are the tabulations of these elections: 
Constitution : 

Yes No 

May 9 Quartz Valley Indians of California 

(Hoopa Valley Agency) 7 0 

Charter: 



April 13 Thlopthlocco Indians of Oklahoma 

(Five Civilized Tribes Agency) 80 1 

May 21+ Alabama and Quassarte Indians of Oklahoma 

(Five Civilized Tribes Agency) 36 3 

June 2 Ottowa Indians of Oklahoma 

(Quapaw Agency) 79 1 



Amendments To Constitutions: 



April 22 Manchester Indians of California 

(Sacramento Agency) #1- 9 15 

#2- 18 6 

June 3 Oneida Indians of Wisconsin 

(Tomah Agency) #1-2^6 10 

#2-2U 11 

#3-2^6 8 

#4-218 36 





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39 



TELEPHONE POLES FOR CCC-ID 
By Patrick Gray, Logging Engineer 

One of 
the e s sentials 
for efficient ad- 
ministration o n 
Indian reserva- 
tions is a meth- 
od whereby quick 
communication may 
be mainta ined 
with o u tlying 
field offices. 
The modern tele- 
Looking Across Lake Pend O'reille To The phone line, sup- 
Mountains Of Northern Idaho Where Many plemented o c ca- 
Cedar Poles Are Growing. sionally by radio 

sets, successful- 
ly fills this need, and accordingly, many hundreds of miles of tele- 
phone lines have been built by CCC-ID enrollees. 

The old lines, many of them strung along fence posts and 
repaired with baling wire, are a thing of the past, and have been 
supplanted with well-engineered and constructed lines, using treated 
poles and high grades of wire. 

In Northern Idaho, the soil and climatic conditions have 
united to produce a tree - Western Red Cedar - famous for its dura- 
bility, and possessing sufficient strength to be ideal for use as a 
telephone pole. Many poles have been purchased in this locality for 
use by the Indian Service. Before being accepted and paid for, each 
pole is examined to see that it meets with the required specifica- 
tions as to length, diameter and freedom from defects. After this 
has been done, the pole is shaved clean of all bark, for a distance 
of two feet below and one foot above the ground line - the most 
vulnerable part - and this shaved portion is then incised, holes be- 
ing punched to a depth of three-eighths of an inch, either with a 
heavy hammer with protruding teeth, or by a machine adapted for the 
purpose. The pole is then placed in a tank containing hot creosote 
oil. This treatment is followed by a cold oil bath. Poles are 
then tested, using an increment borer, to determine if there is suf- 
ficient penetration of the oil in the wood. The poles are then 
loaded on cars to be shipped by railroad to the point where they are 
needed. These inspections are usually made by a member of the Re- 
gional Office forestry staff. 




uo 



WIDE VARIETY OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS REVEAL DEEP INTEREST 

IN INDIAN SUBJECTS 

Lists Of Important Books And Articles Will Be Published 
Periodically As A Service To Readers Of " Indians At Work" 



By Elizabeth Morison 

As an indication of the widespread interest in Indian mat- 
ters, the following long list of recent publications tells its own 
story. This diverse compilation of periodicals and books dealing 
with Indians represents an extremely wide public and covers a great 
many types of writing, from children's publications, art magazines, 
and social studies, to medical, socio-political treatises and his- 
torical and archaeological findings. Geographically the material is 
equally diverse, stretching as it does from the Red Eagles of the 
Pacific Northwest to the Andean life of South America. 

It is the aim of "Indians At Work" to present, in each is- 
sue, if possible, a summary guide to the best writings on Indian 
subjects. As a further service to our readers, we will endeaTor to 
obtain, upon request, information about publications not included 
in these lists. 



Indians In Periodical Literature 

AMONG THE INDIANS IN NORTH DAKOTA. T. A. Simpson. Missionary Re- 
view of the World. 62:253-4. May 1939. 

ANENT UNIPEDS. R. L. Ives. American Anthropologist. 41:336. April 
1939. 

APPEAL OF PEYOTE AS A MEDICINE. R. E. Schultes. American Anthro- 
pologist. 40:698-715. October 1938; Reply W. La Barre. 
41:340-2. April 1939. 

ART PLUS HISTORY. L. D. Poole. School Arts. 184-6. February 1939. 

CEREMONIAL DANCES AND COUP STICKS. Drawings and Instructions. W. B. 

Hunt. Indian Arts and Vocational Education. 28-254. June 
1939. 

CHEROKEE CLAN. A study in Acculturation. Leonard Bloom. American 
Anthropologist. 41:266-8. April 1939. 



41 



CHEYENNE ROACH: Drawings and Instructions. W. B. Hunt. Indian Arts 
and Vocational Education. 28:210-11. May 1939. 

CONVERSION OF A PAGAN AMERICAN. L. B. Janowsky. Missionary Review 
of the World. 62:77-9. February 1939. 

CULTURAL PATTERNS IN MODERN MEXICO. Manuel Gamio. Quarterly Journal 
of Inter-American Relations. April 1939. 

DAYS OF THE WEEK IN THE LANGUAGE OF TAOS PUEBLO, NEW MEXICO. G. L. 
Trager. Language 15:51-5. January 1939. 

FIRST IN THE LAND. J. Montagnes. Canadian Magazine. 91:38. April 
1939. 

FRANCISCANS RETURN TO ZUNI. E. C. Parsons. American Anthropologist. 
41: 337-8. April 1939. 

FURTHER NOTES ON BASKET MAKER III. SANDALS FROM NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA. 

Gordon C. Baldwin. 41: 223-44. April 1939. See previous 
article 40:465-85. July 1938. American Anthropologist. 

GOOD OLD DAYS A FALLACY. Science News Letter. 35:28. January 14, 
1939. 

GOVERNMENT AND THE NAVAJO. 1846-1858. Frank D. Reeve. New Mexico 
Historical Review. January 1939. 

HUARIZATA. A Study in Andean Culture. Enrique de Lozada. Quarterly 
Journal of Inter-American Relations. April 1939. 

INDIAN NAMES FOR THE MONTHS. St. Nicholas. 66:26. February 1939. 

MENTAL AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MAYA AND NAVAJO INDIANS AS EVI- 
DENCED BY A PSYCHOLOGICAL RATING SCALE. M. Steggerda and 
E. Macomber. Journal of Social Psychology. 10:51-9. Feb- 
ruary 1939. 

MUSIC OF INDIAN MEXICO. R. Gallop. Musical Quarterly. 25:210-25. 
April 1939. 

NATIVE LANGUAGES AS FIELD WORK TOOLS. Margaret Mead. American An- 
thropologist. April 1939. 

NATURE AND THE NORTHWESTERN RET; MAN; MANY PLANTS STILL USED IN MAKING 
CHARMS AND MEDICINE. H. D. Guie. Nature Magazine. 32: 
71-3. February 1939. 



42 



NAVAJO CLANS AND MARRIAGES AT PUEBLO ALTO. Malcolm Carr, Katherine 
Spencer, Doriane Woolley. American Anthropologist. 41: 
2^5-57. April 1939. 

NAVAJO YEI-BET-CHAI. F. Waters. Yale Review 28. No. 3: 558-71. 
March 1939. 

NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN ARTS. R. d'Harnoncourt. Magazine of Art. 32: 
164-7. March 1939. 

PICURIS, NEW MEXICO. Elsie Clews Parsons. American Anthropologist. 
April 1939. 

POTATO SPIRIT BELIEVED ANCIENT INDIAN GOD. Science News Letter. 35: 
151. March 11, 1939. 

PRIMITIVES RECKON TIME. TENA INDIANS IN ALASKAN YUKON REGION. Sci- 
ence News Letter. 35:52. January 28, 1939. 

PROBLEM IN PHONOLOGICAL ALTERNATION. M. Swadesh and C. F. Voegelin. 
Language 15:1-10. January 1939. 

REAL HIAWATHA. A. Wallace. Scholastic Magazine. 34:21S. May 1939. 

REDSKIN REVIVAL: HIGH BIRTHRATE GIVES CONGRESS A NEW OVERPRODUCTION 
HEADACHE. Newsweek Magazine. 13:14-15. February 20, 1939. 

REPORT OF COLONEL SAMUEL COOPER OF INSPECTION TRIP FROM FORT GRAHAM 
TO THE INDIAN VILLAGES ON THE UPPER BRAZOS MADE IN JUNE 
1851. E. B. Ritchie. 327-33. Southwestern Historical 
Quarterly. April 1939. 

RINDISBACHER'S MINNESOTA WATER COLORS. G. L. Nute. Minnesota His- 
tory. 20:54-7. March 1939. 

SIGNIFICANCE OF HUNTING TERRITORY SYSTEMS OF THE ALGONKIAN IN SOCIAL 
THEORY. F. G. Speck and L. C. Eiseley. American Anthro- 
pologist. 41:269-80. April 1939. 

SOCIAL CHANGE AMONG THE HIGHLAND INDIANS OF GUATEMALA. W. Kirk. So- 
ciology and Social Research. 23:321-33. March 1939. 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON SHOSHONEAN DISTRIBUTIONS. Julian H. Steward. 
American Anthropologist. April 1939. 

SOME VERY LITTLE MEXICANS. W. Smith. St. Nicholas. 66:12-13. Feb- 
ruary 25, 1939. 

STABILITY IN CULTURE AND PATTERN. W. W. Hill. 41, 258-60. Ameri- 
can Anthropologist. April 1939. 



STUDY HALF-WAY POINT IN ANCIENT AMERICAN AXIS. Science News Letter. 
35:121. February 25, 1939. 

STUDY OF INDIANS SHOWS WHAT HARD TIMES WERE LIKE. Science News Let- 
ter. 35:169. March IS, 1939. 



Eskimos In Periodical Literature 

ESKIMO DOGS: ANYONE CAN DRIVE DOGS. E. C. Forrest. Atlantic Month- 
ly. 163:406-8. March 1939. 

ESKIMO HARVEST: WALRUS HUNTING. Edited by L. Anson, B. Albee. Sat- 
urday Evening Post. 211:36. March 20, 1939. 

ESKIMO SEXUAL FUNCTIONS. C. A. Mills. Science. 89:11-12. Jan- 
uary 6, 1939. 

FROZEN FRAGMENTS OF AMERICAN HISTORY. Henry B. Collins, Jr. Nation- 
al Geographic Magazine. May 1939. 75:633-656. 

INGENIUS ESKIMOS. E. Weyer. Reader's Digest. 34:53-6. June 19 39. 

MISSION IN THE ARCTIC CIRCLE; EXPERIENCES AT BARROW, ALASKA, THE 
NORTHERNMOST MISSION IN THE WORLD. H. W. Greist. Mission- 
ary Review of the World. 62:167-71. April 1939. 

UN MARCHE ESQUIMAU. P. Frenchen. Les Annales Politiques et Lit- 
teraires. 113:227-9. February 25, 1939. 

WHITE ESKIMO CHIEF. C. M. Garber. Hygeia. 17:328-32. April 1939. 



Books On Indian Life 

BARNETT, H. G. CULTURE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS. Part 9. 75 Cents. 
University of California. 1939. 

BERGSOE, P. METALLURGY AND TECHNOLOGY OF GOLD AND PLATINUM AMONG THE 
PRE-COLUMBIAN INDIANS. 2 krone. 1937. G. E. C. Gad. 1932 
Vimmelskaftet Street, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

CHAPMAN, K. M. POTTERY OF SANTO DOMINGO PUEBLO. 1936. Laboratory 
of Anthropology, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

CLAY, C. SWAMPY CREE LEGENDS. 6 shillings. 1939. The Macraillian 
Company. $1.25. Toronto. 



COTT, E. E. TRAILING THE DAVIS INDIANS. 65 Cents. 1936 



EWERS, J. C. PLAINS INDIAN PAINTING. $4.50; Education Edition. $3. 
1939. Stanford University Press. 

GIBSON, L. H. MORAVIAN INDIAN MISSION ON WHITE RIVER. $2. 1938. 

Historical Bureau of Library and Historical Department 
of the State of Indiana. 

HAINES, F. RED EAGLES OF THE NORTHWEST. $2.50. 1939. Scholastic 
Press. 338 N. W. 9th Avenue, Portland, Oregon. 

HEWETT, E. L. ANCIENT ANDEAN LIFE. $4. 1939. Bobbs-Merrill. $4.50 
McClelland and Stewart. Toronto. 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA. INDIAN TREATIES PRINTED BY BEN- 
JAMIN FRANKLIN. 1736-1762, buck $15. 1938. The Society, 
1300 Locust Street, Philadelphia. 

KELLY, I. T. EXCAVATIONS AT CHAMETIA, Sinaioa. $1.25. 1938. Uni- 
versity of California. 

KING, T. NARRATIVE OF TITUS KING OF NORTHAMPTON, MASSACHUSETTS, A 
PRISONER OF THE INDIANS IN CANADA, 1755-1758. $1.50. 1938 
Connecticut Historical Society. 

LONG, J. VOYAGES AND TRAVELS OF AN INDIAN INTERPRETER AND TRADER. 
Limited Edition.. $5. Clark, Arthur H. California. 

HERA, H. P. BANDED BACKGROUND BLANKETS. 25 Cents. 1939. Labora- 
tory of Anthropology, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

MERA, H. P. RAIN BIRD. $3.50. 1937. Laboratory of Anthropology, 
Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

OGLESBY, C. MODERN PRIMITIVE ARTS IN MEXICO, GUATEMALA AND THE SOUTH- 
west. $3. 1939. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York City. 
$2.75. George J. McLeod, Toronto. 

PARSONS, E. W. C. PUEBLO INDIAN RELIGION. 2 Vol. $7. 1939. Un- 
iversity of Chicago Press. 

PAYNE, E. W. IMMORTAL STONE AGE. Lea'tte. $1. 1938. Light ner 
Publishing Company, 2810 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 

PEALE, A. L. UNCAS AND THE MOHEGAN-PEQUOT. $2. 1939. Me a d o r 
Publishing Company, Boston. 

PRIEST, J. STORIES OF THE REVOLUTION BUCK. $2.50. 1938. E. E. 
Brownell, 1418 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

REICHARD, G. A. DEZBA, WOMAN OF THE DESERT. $3. J. J. Augustin 
New York. 



45 



RENAUD, E. B. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY SERIES: ELEVENTH REPORT, (mim- 
eographed). 75 Cents. 1938. University of Denver, De- 
partment of Anthropology, Denver. 

ROBERTS, F. K. H. ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS IN THE WHITEWATER DISTRICT 
OF EASTERN ARIZONA. Part 1. 50 Cents. 1939. Superinten- 
dent of Documents. 

ROGERS, F. B. SOLDIERS OF THE OVERLAND. Limited Edition. $7.50. 
1938. Grabhorn Press. San Francisco. 

STEWARD, J. H. BASIN-PLATEAU ABORIGINAL SOCIO-POLITICAL GROUPS. 1938. 
50 Cents. Superintendents of Documents. 

BERRILL, A. H. AMERICAN INDIAN CIVILIZATION. $1.69. Tudor Publish- 
ing Company. 

WEBB, W. S. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WHEELER BASIN ON THE TENNESSEE 
RIVER IN NORTHERN ALABAMA. 50 Cents. 1939. Superinten- 
dent of Documents. 

WOODRUFF, J. INDIAN OASIS. $3.00. 1939. Caxton Printers, Idaho. 



«•**-*•»* 

Nearly two billions of idle capital (not including PWA 
loans) were put to work as a result of the non-Federal program of 
the Public Works Administration, it was reported on June 16 as PWA 
observed its sixth anniversary. 

The source of this contribution from cities, towns and 
counties toward the construction of 16,700 useful local projects is 
chiefly idle private capital with which investors bought bonds is- 
sued by local public bodies. 

Roy B. Williams, Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau of 
Reclamation, was recently designated as Construction Engineer of 
the important Friant Division of the Central Valley Pro.ject , Cal- 
ifornia . Harry W. Bashore, Construction Engineer of the Kendrick 
Project, Wyoming, will take over Mr. Williams' duties in Washington 
as Assistant Commissioner. 



46 

Cheyenne Indians At Tongue River 
(Montana) Reservation Are Versa- 
tile CCC Workers 




Here Is The Way They Cut Posts 
And Poles For Guard Rails - 




And Load Trucks With Good Soil 
To Build Lawns - 



emu 




MERCEMC 
i TELEPHONl 



car 




And Produce Workmanlike Signs. 



CIVILIAN CONSERVATION COR 
INDIAN DIVISION — NOTES FR( 
WEEKLY PROGRESS REPORT 



Grasshoppers Increasing At 
Fort Berthold ( North D a fc o t"al 
Grasshoppers appear to be in 
more increasing numbers than 
last year, or in the past, and 
the rainy spell did not last 
long enough to do any damage to 
them. Bait is being mixed for 
extermination. Six bait spread- 
ers are on h a n d to do the 
spreading and it is hoped that 
three or four more spreaders 
made by the 4-H Club can be 
borrowed from the school de- 
partment. Maurice F. Bab by. 

Grasshopper Control Is Ma- 
jor Project at Fort T o tten 
( North Dakota ) From 75% to 90% 
of the grasshopper eggs have 
already hatched. A crew i s 
mixing the bait. Two mechani- 
cal spreaders, pulled by truck's 
are spreading the bait along 
roadsides and more level farm- 
land. In the rougher country, 
30 small crews have been organ- 
ized to kill the hoppers before 
they can do much damage to crop 
land and gardens. James H. Hyde. 

Fit z simmons Dam Nears Com- 
pletion at Potawatbmi ( Kansas ) 
The spillway is already com- 
pleted and the dam will be fin- 
ished shortly. It will be one 
of the best dams con s true ted 
to date on the reservation. 

The pine trees are diffi- 
cult trees to get started, but 
with only one year's nursery 



U7 



growth, they are already show- 
ing considerable progress. Mr. 
Russell Reitz, Forest Serv- 
ice State Director, said he 
would be satisfied in view of 
the dry weather if the trees 
even stayed alive without 
growth. P. Everett Sperry . 

Recreational Activities 
At Yakima ( Washington ) T he 
demand for recreation is such 
that there is barely enough e- 
quipment and games to go a- 
round. During t he evenings 
and weekends the tennis court, 
horseshoe pit and kitty ball 
field are in constant use. 
Considerable interest is also 
shown by the spectators on the 
sidelines. G. W. St. Hiche 1 . 

Rain Speeds Crops A t 
Pierre Indian School ( South 
Dakota ) The rain pepped up 
our new seeding and sodding 
and started the weeds to such 
an extent that it has kept the 
men very busy. Enrollees 
planted a good size corn and 
mellon patch after working 
hours. The mellons will be 
protected with screens and a 
desperate effort is being made 
to grow the usual crop of 
sweet corn and pickles. S. J. 
Wood . 

Big Forest Fire Curbed At 
Mescalero ( New Mexico ) Work 
on all projects was conducted 
on a small scale because all 
available men were called to 
fight the fire. Outside CCC 
camps assisted and the fire 
was taken care of in jig time. 
This proved another example of 
the efficiency of our CCC fire 



fighting machines. Not one man 
was injured or overcome b y 
smoke among the 300 who took 
part in fighting this fire. 
M. L. Osborn . 

Indian enrollees perf e ct 
themselves on every skill of 
the automobile trade in repair- 
ing trucks and automotive e- 
quipment. They do painting, 
welding, fender rolling, up- 
holstering, body re b uilding, 
in addition to motor overhaul- 
ing and repair of motor and 
chassis parts. 

An unusual example of the 
advancement in mechanical skill 
is that of Sam Notsinneh, A- 
pache enrollee at Jicarilla, 
New Mexico. Until he joined 
the CCC he spoke no English, 
had no understanding of how to 
conduct himself and to perform 
useful work of any kind. He 
has since learned a bit of En- 
glish and how to operate trac- 
tors and dirt moving machinery. 
If he could speak English bet- 
ter, there is no question a— 
bout his being able to secure 
and hold a good job outside the 
Indian Service. 

Sam says its all right to 
speak to his tractor in Apache 
"Because he understand pretty 
good. " 

Safety Committee At Wind 
River ( Wyoming ] Gets Results . 
A safety committee has proved 
successful in working out new 
methods t o reduce a c c i dent 
frequency. A safety man is 
appointed for each small work 
group and camp to report to 



us 



the committee on safety con- 
ditions. A safety court has 
been started with a judge, 
jury of six, prosecuting at- 
torney, and an attorney for 
the defense. A sheriff brings 
the accused to court and sees 
that sentences are carried 
out. Sentences are composed 
of details of extra duty and 
vary with the seriousness of 
the offense. Jack E. St en- 
berg . 

Recreational A c tivities 
At Uintah and Ouray ( Utah ) The 
boys at Hidden Camp are taking 
a great interest in their rec- 
reational activities after 
working hours. Their spirit 
is very good. Playing check- 
ers and reading continues to 
be the favorite a f t e r-dark 
sports. The boys are comin g 
along fine in their f ie 1 d 
work. Carnes La Rose . 

Landscaping Project A t 
Tomah~ ( w"isconsin ) Progressing 
The continuation of the land- 
scaping project has shown 
fine results. The lawn a- 
round the ranger station is 
coming along fine and the elm 
trees that were transplanted 
this spring have done very 
well, and the old 1 o gging 
camp site almost ceases to be. 
The old building is be ing 
replaced by a new building 
and nice lawn. 

Good sportsman s hi p in 
hunting and fishing is being 
presented as part of the edu- 
cational program at CCC- 1 D 
Camp Nanaha. The camp is now 
located at Bishop, California, 



in the heart of the High Sier- 
ra country. This area is 
noted for its fishing and 
hunting and the enrollees have 
already learned where to find 
the trout in the cold mountain 
streams. A series of talks is 
being presented at the camp 
each Friday afternoon on the 
subjects of game conservation, 
the reason for game laws, for- 
est protection and good man- 
ners in the mountains in gen- 
eral. These talks are being 
given by state game wardens, 
forest rangers, local sports- 
men and others interested in 
conserving game and promo t ing 
the enjoyment of the out-of- 
doors. 

Enrollee Prog ram Pro- 
gressing at Osage ( Oklahoma ) 
The enrollee program is pro- 
gressing very nicely, with the 
classes being held at differ- 
ent places on the- campus. The 
classes are showing improve- 
ment and the enrollees are 
very attentive. The enrollee 
gardens are growing a great 
deal and will soon be ready 
for judging. 

Mormon Cricket Control Is 
Being Studied At V/arm Springs 
( Oregon ) The dustir. ; ; rocess 
of the Mormon crickets has 
been discontinued for the time 
being. Col. Hart W. Palmer, 
Entomologist from P o rtland, 
has been here to study this 
infestation and reports that 
there is a large infestation 
on the upper edge of the res- 
ervation, but in that area 
there is nothing to be harmed 
by the crickets. 



SANTEE SIOUX INDIAN SETS EXAMPLE FOR 



YOUNGER GENERATION WITH CREDIT AND HOGS 



Editor's Note : The following article was originally- 
written by Harrison Good teacher, a full-blood Santee Sioux 
Indian, in the Dakota or Sioux language. Mr. Goodteacher 
is one of the ninety revolving credit loan clients of the 
Winnebago Agency in Nebraska, the large majority of whom 
are making similar efforts, and demonstrating like ambi- 
tions . 

Thirty to forty years ago our Dakota people still had their 
lands. From that time their lands were alienated, and with the loss 
of their lands, their population increased until as many as two or 
three families lived together under one roof. 

Unexpectedly, an idea was born and formulated, and although 
not of the Dakota, these white men, with a feeling of pity for the 
Indians, brought about organization for our people. From the first I 
liked this new idea and wanted to know more about it, so when Mr. 
David Frazier came back from one of the first meetings which was held 
at Pierre, South Dakota, I questioned him and was told about it. Lat- 
er I talked with other young men about this idea. Now some of these 
men are being placed on lands which were bought by the Government for 
us. 

I, myself, am living on a four hundred acre farm rented 
from white people and made possible by a loan from the Revolving Loan 
Fund. Remembering the hard times I've had in the past, I sometimes 
wonder if I'm the same man. On awakening in the mornings I now have 
stock waiting to be fed and after they are fed and the cows are 
milked, I go to a breakfast table whereon is milk, cream, butter and 
eggs. This is what is wished for us by the Government. They also 
want us to work on the lands purchased for us, not to sleep and to 
raise better crops. Only so, can we hope to set a good example for 
the younger generation. 

From these ideas I know one good thing - owning hogs, I 
have not bought any lard or pork products for more than four months. 
1 farmed 113 acres of cultivated land this past year and intend to 
farm 150 to 160 acres the coming year. I want to raise more hogs 
this coming year also. The Government wants us to farm better and 
remember the education part.